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Paris Agreement

Parties with reservations, declarations and objections

Party Reservations / Declarations Objections
Belgium Yes No
Bulgaria Yes No
Canada Yes No
Cook Islands Yes No
Denmark Yes No
EU (European Union) Yes No
Federated States of Micronesia Yes No
India Yes No
Israel Yes No
Marshall Islands Yes No
Mexico Yes No
Nauru Yes No
Netherlands, the Kingdom of the Yes No
New Zealand Yes No
Niue Yes No
Palestine Yes No
Philippines Yes No
Poland Yes No
Russian Federation Yes No
Solomon Islands Yes No
Spain Yes No
Tuvalu Yes No
United States of America Yes No
Vanuatu Yes No

Belgium

22-04-2016

This signature engages also the Walloon Region, the Flemish Region and the Brussels-Capital Region.

Bulgaria

29-11-2016

The Republic of Bulgaria recognizes that in accordance with Article 9, paragraph 1, of the Paris Agreement developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention. In this context the Republic of Bulgaria notes that as a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Bulgaria is not included in Annex II.

Canada

14-12-2016

The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations presents its compliments to the Secretary-General of the United Nations and has the honour to refer to the Paris Agreement and the Secretary-General’s communication of April 22, 2016 C.N.176.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d, relating to that treaty. The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations notes that this communication was made pursuant to the Secretary-General’s capacity as Depositary for the Paris Agreement. The Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations notes the technical and administrative role of the Depositary, and that it is for States Parties to a treaty, not the Depositary, to make their own determination with respect to any legal issues raised by instruments circulated by a depositary.
In that context, the Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations notes, in line with its communication of January 19, 2016 C.N.11.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7 relating to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, that the ‘State of Palestine’ does not meet the criteria of a state under international law and is not recognized by Canada as a state. Therefore, in order to avoid confusion, the Permanent Mission of Canada to the United Nations wishes to note its position that in the context of the purported Palestinian ratification of the Paris Agreement, the ‘State of Palestine’ is not able to ratify this Agreement, and that the Paris Agreement does not enter into force, or have an effect on Canada’s treaty relations, with respect to the ‘State of Palestine’.

Cook Islands

01-09-2016

The Government of the Cook Islands declares its understanding that acceptance of the Paris Agreement and its application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change.
The Government of the Cook Islands further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.

Denmark

01-11-2016

Territorial exclusion in respect of Greenland.

EU (European Union)

05-10-2016

Declaration by the Union made in accordance with Article 20(3) of the Paris Agreement.
The following States are at present Members of the European Union: the Kingdom of Belgium, the Republic of Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, the Kingdom of Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Republic of Estonia, Ireland, the Hellenic Republic, the Kingdom of Spain, the French Republic, the Republic of Croatia, the Italian Republic, the Republic of Cyprus, the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Lithuania, the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, Hungary, the Republic of Malta, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Republic of Austria, the Republic of Poland, the Portuguese Republic, Romania, the Republic of Slovenia, the Slovak Republic, the Republic of Finland, the Kingdom of Sweden, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The European Union declares that, in accordance with the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, and in particular Article 191 and Article 192(1) thereof, it is competent to enter into international agreements, and to implement the obligations resulting therefrom, which contribute to the pursuit of the following objectives:
- preserving, protecting and improving the quality of the environment;
- protecting human health;
- prudent and rational utilisation of natural resources;
- promoting measures at international level to deal with regional or worldwide
environmental problems, and in particular combating climate change.
[…]
The European Union will continue to provide information, on a regular basis on any substantial modifications in the extent of its competence, in accordance with Article 20(3) of the Agreement.

Federated States of Micronesia

15-09-2016

The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia declares its understanding that its ratification of the Paris Agreement does not constitute a renunciation of any rights of the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change, and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation and liability due to the adverse effects of climate change; and The Government of the Federated States of Micronesia further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessments on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in the Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature increase above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels, and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for the national interests of the Government of the Federated States of Micronesia.

India

02-10-2016

The Government of India declares its understanding that, as per its national laws; keeping in view its development agenda, particularly the eradication of poverty and provision of basic needs for all its citizens, coupled with its commitment to following the low carbon path to progress, and on the assumption of unencumbered availability of cleaner sources of energy and technologies and financial resources from around the world; and based on a fair and ambitious assessment of global commitment to combating climate change, it is ratifying the Paris Agreement.

Israel

14-12-2016

The Permanent Mission of Israel to the United Nations presents its compliments to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his capacity as depositary of the Paris Agreement, signed 22 April 2016 (hereinafter “the Agreement”), and refers to the communication by the depositary, dated 22 April 2016, regarding the Palestinian request to accede to this Agreement (Reference number C.N.176.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d (Depositary Notification)).
‘Palestine’ does not satisfy the criteria for statehood under international law and lacks the legal capacity to join the aforesaid Agreement under general international law, as well as under the terms of the Agreement and of bilateral Israeli-Palestinian agreements.
The Government of Israel does not recognize ‘Palestine’ as a State, and wishes to place on record, for the sake of clarity, its position that it does not consider ‘Palestine’ a party to the Agreement and regards the Palestinian request for accession as being without any legal validity or effect.

Marshall Islands

22-04-2016

[...] the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares its understanding that ratification of the Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under any other laws, including international law, and the communication depositing the Republic's instrument of ratification shall include a declaration to this effect for international record;
Furthermore, the Government of the Republic of the Marshall Islands declares that, in light of best scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Doha Amendment and the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-Industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests [...].

Mexico

21-09-2016

[…] in accordance with their national legal framework, and in consideration of the best and most up-to-date scientific information available and incorporated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the United Mexican States understands greenhouse gas emissions to mean the release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases and/or their precursors and aerosols into the atmosphere, including, where applicable, greenhouse compounds, within a specific area and during a specific period of time.

Nauru

22-04-2016

[...] the Government, of Nauru declares its understanding that the ratification of the Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility [for] the adverse effects of climate change.
Further, the Government of Nauru declares that no provisions in the Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from the principles of general international law.
And further, the Government of Nauru declares its understanding that Article 8 and decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 51 in no way limits the ability of Parties to UNFCCC or the Agreement to raise, discuss, or address any present or future concerns regarding the issues of liability and compensation.
The Republic of Nauru put forth its concern intended to recognize and acknowledge its national interest [...].

Netherlands, the Kingdom of the

28-07-2017

The Kingdom of the Netherlands, for the European part of the Netherlands, declares in accordance with Article 14, paragraph 2, of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in conjunction with Article 24 of the Paris Agreement, that it accepts both means of dispute settlement referred to in that paragraph as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting one or both means of dispute settlement.

New Zealand

04-10-2016

[...] consistent with the constitutional status of Tokelau and taking into account the commitment of the Government of New Zealand to the development of self-government for Tokelau through an act of self-determination under the Charter of the United Nations, [the accession by New Zealand to this Protocol] shall not extend to Tokelau unless and until a Declaration to this effect is lodged by the Government of New Zealand with the Depositary on the basis of appropriate consultation with that territory[...]

Niue

28-10-2016

The Government of Niue declares its understanding that acceptance of the Paris Agreement and its application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change.
The Government of Niue further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.

Palestine

03-02-2017

The Permanent Observer of the State of Palestine to the United Nations presents his compliments to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his capacity as Depositary, and has the honor to refer to depositary notification C.N.913.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d, dated 14 December 201[6], conveying a communication of Israel regarding the ratification of the State of Palestine [of] the Paris Agreement, dated 12 December 2015.
The Government of the State of Palestine regrets the position of Israel and wishes to recall United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19 of 29 November 2012 according Palestine ‘non-member observer State status in the United Nations’. In this regard, Palestine is a State recognized by the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the international community.
The State of Palestine signed and ratified the Paris Agreement at the opening ceremony at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 22 April 2016. The State of Palestine will exercise its rights and honor its obligations with respect to all States Parties. The State of Palestine trusts that its rights and obligations will be equally respected by its fellow States Parties.

03-02-2017

The Permanent Observer of the State of Palestine to the United Nations presents his compliments to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his capacity as Depositary, and has the honor to refer to depositary notification C.N.914.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d, dated 15 December 201[6], conveying a communication of Canada regarding the ratification of the State of Palestine [of] the Paris Agreement, dated 12 December 2015.
The Government of the State of Palestine regrets the position of Canada and wishes to recall United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19 of 29 November 2012 according Palestine ‘non-member observer State status in the United Nations’. In this regard, Palestine is a State recognized by the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the international community.
The State of Palestine signed and ratified the Paris Agreement at the opening ceremony at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 22 April 2016. The State of Palestine will exercise its rights and honor its obligations with respect to all States Parties. The State of Palestine trusts that its rights and obligations will be equally respected by its fellow States Parties.

03-02-2017

The Permanent Observer of the State of Palestine to the United Nations presents his compliments to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his capacity as Depositary, and has the honor to refer to depositary notification C.N.915.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d, dated 15 December 201[6], conveying a communication of the United States of America regarding the ratification of the State of Palestine [of] the Paris Agreement, dated 12 December 2015.
The Government of the State of Palestine regrets the position of the United States of America and wishes to recall United Nations General Assembly resolution 67/19 of 29 November 2012 according Palestine ‘non-member observer State status in the United Nations’. In this regard, Palestine is a State recognized by the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the international community.
The State of Palestine signed and ratified the Paris Agreement at the opening ceremony at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 22 April 2016. The State of Palestine will exercise its rights and honor its obligations with respect to all States Parties. The State of Palestine trusts that its rights and obligations will be equally respected by its fellow States Parties.

Philippines

23-03-2017

THAT it is the understanding of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines that its accession to and the implementation of the Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of rights under any local and international laws or treaties, including those concerning State responsibility for loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change;
THAT, the accession to and implementation of the Paris Agreement by the Republic of the Philippines is for the purpose of supporting the country's national development objectives and priorities such as sustainable industrial development, the eradication of poverty and provision of basic needs, and securing social and climate justice and energy security for all its citizens.

Poland

07-10-2016

The Government of the Republic of Poland recognizes that under Article 9 paragraph 1 of the Paris Agreement developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation and adaptation in continuation of their existing obligations under the Convention. In this context the Government of the Republic of Poland notes that Poland is a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change not included in Annex II.

Russian Federation

07-10-2019

1. The Russian Federation recognizes that, in accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 9 of the Agreement, developed country Parties shall provide financial resources to assist developing country Parties with respect to both mitigation of climate change and adaptation to it in continuation of their existing obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change of 9 May 1992 (hereinafter referred to as “the Convention”). In this context, the Russian Federation notes that as a Party to the Convention the Russian Federation is not included in Annex II to the Convention.
2. The Russian Federation proceeds from the importance of conservation and enhancement of absorbing capacity of forests and other ecosystems, as well as from the necessity of the maximum possible account of this capacity including in the implementation of the Agreement’s mechanisms.
3. The Russian Federation considers unacceptable the use of the Agreement and its mechanisms as tools to create barriers to sustainable social and economic development of the Parties to the Convention.

Solomon Islands

21-09-2016

… the Government of Solomon Islands declares its understanding that acceptance of the aforesaid Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change;
FURTHER, that the Government of Solomon Islands declares that no provision in this Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to impacts of climate change;
AND that the Government of Solomon Islands declares that the low ambition of the Paris Agreement and its adequacy to stabilize global temperature to safe level of below 1.5 degree Celsius, such emissions will have severe impacts and undermining our sustainable development efforts…

Spain

12-01-2017

In the case where this Agreement is ratified by the United Kingdom and its application extended to the territory of Gibraltar, Spain wishes to make the following declaration:
1. Gibraltar is a non-autonomous territory whose international relations come under the responsibility of the United Kingdom and which is subject to a decolonisation process in accordance with the relevant decisions and resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
2. The authorities of Gibraltar have a local character and exercise exclusively internal competences which have their origin and their foundation in the distribution and attribution of competences performed by the United Kingdom in compliance with its internal legislation, in its capacity as sovereign State on which the mentioned non-autonomous territory depends.
3. As a result, the eventual participation of authorities of Gibraltar in the application of this Agreement will be understood as carried out exclusively as part of the internal competences of Gibraltar and cannot be considered to modify in any way what was established in the two previous paragraphs.
4. The application of this Agreement to Gibraltar cannot be interpreted as an recognition of any rights or situations regarding areas not covered by article 10 of the Treaty of Utrecht of 13 July 1713, concluded between the Crowns of Spain and of the United Kingdom.

Tuvalu

22-04-2016

The Government of Tuvalu hereby notifies that it will apply the Paris Agreement provisionally as provided for in paragraph 4 of Decision 1/CP.21.
[…]
The Government of Tuvalu further declares its understanding that acceptance of the aforesaid Paris Agreement and its provisional application shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under international law concerning State responsibility for the adverse effects of climate change and that no provision in the Paris Agreement can be interpreted as derogating from principles of general international law or any claims or rights concerning compensation due to the impacts of climate change.
The Government of Tuvalu further declares that, in light of the best available scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emissions reduction obligations in the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent a global temperature stabilisation level at or above 1.5 degrees Celsius relative to pre-industrial levels and as a consequence, such emissions will have severe implications for our national interests.

United States of America

14-12-2016

The United States Mission to the United Nations presents its compliments to the United Nations and refers to the U.N. Secretary-General’s depositary notifications C.N.174.2016.TREATIESXXVII. 7.d and C.N.176.2016.TREATIES-XXVII.7.d, both dated April 22, 2016, regarding the purported signature and ratification, respectively, by the ‘State of Palestine’ of the Paris Agreement, done at Paris December 12, 2015, for which the Secretary-General of the United Nations is the depositary.
The Government of the United States of America does not believe the ‘State of Palestine’ qualifies as a sovereign State and does not recognize it as such. Signature and ratification of the Paris Agreement is limited to sovereign States and regional economic integration organizations that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.
The Government of the United States of America recalls that the Secretary-General in his depositary capacity issued, on December 23, 2015, a notification concerning accession by the ‘State of Palestine’ to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in response to which the United States Mission to the United Nations, on January 19, 2016, communicated that the Government of the United States of America believes that the ‘State of Palestine’ is not qualified to accede to the Convention.
Therefore, the Government of the United States of America believes that the ‘State of Palestine’ is not qualified to sign or ratify the Paris Agreement and affirms that it will not consider itself to be in a treaty relationship with the ‘State of Palestine’ under the Paris Agreement.

04-08-2017

This is to inform the Secretary-General, in connection with the Paris Agreement, adopted at Paris on December 12, 2015 (“the Agreement”), that the United States intends to exercise its right to withdraw from the Agreement. Unless the United States identifies suitable terms for reengagement, the United States will submit to the Secretary-General, in accordance with Article 28, paragraph 1 of the Agreement, formal written notification of its withdrawal as soon as it is eligible to do so. Pending the submission of that notification, in the interest of transparency for parties to the Agreement, the United States requests that the Secretary-General inform the parties to the Agreement and the States entitled to become parties to the Agreement of this communication relating to the Agreement.

Vanuatu

21-09-2016

Whereas the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu declares its understanding that ratification of the Paris Agreement shall in no way constitute a renunciation of any rights under any other laws, including international law, and the communication depositing the Republic’s instrument of ratification shall include a declaration to this effect for international record;
Furthermore, that the Government of the Republic of Vanuatu declares that, in light of best scientific information and assessment on climate change and its impacts, it considers the emission reduction obligations in Article 3 of the Kyoto Protocol, the Doha Amendment and the aforesaid Paris Agreement to be inadequate to prevent global temperature increase of 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre- Industrial levels and as a consequence, will have severe implications for our national interests...

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